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Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade.
It was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10, muskets.
Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product e. Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used.
In , Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job.
He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work.
The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems PMTS.
Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task. PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements e.
PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work.
The Gilbreths took advantage of taking motion pictures at known time intervals while operators were performing the given task.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented.
In the U. Services were largely local in nature except for railroads and telegraph and owned by entrepreneurs and families.
The idea of the production line has been used multiple times in history prior to Henry Ford: Ransom Olds was the first to manufacture cars using the assembly line system, but Henry Ford developed the first auto assembly system where a car chassis was moved through the assembly line by a conveyor belt while workers added components to it until the car was completed.
During World War II, the growth of computing power led to further development of efficient manufacturing methods and the use of advanced mathematical and statistical tools.
This was supported by the development of academic programs in industrial and systems engineering disciplines, as well as fields of operations research and management science as multi-disciplinary fields of problem solving.
While systems engineering concentrated on the broad characteristics of the relationships between inputs and outputs of generic systems, operations researchers concentrated on solving specific and focused problems.
The synergy of operations research and systems engineering allowed for the realization of solving large scale and complex problems in the modern era.
Recently, the development of faster and smaller computers, intelligent systems , and the World Wide Web has opened new opportunities for operations, manufacturing, production, and service systems.
Before the First industrial revolution work was mainly done through two systems: In the domestic system merchants took materials to homes where artisans performed the necessary work, craft guilds on the other hand were associations of artisans which passed work from one shop to another, for example: The beginning of the industrial revolution is usually associated with 18th century English textile industry , with the invention of flying shuttle by John Kay in , the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves in , the water frame by Richard Arkwright in and the steam engine by James Watt in In at the Crystal Palace Exhibition the term American system of manufacturing was used to describe the new approach that was evolving in the United States of America which was based on two central features: The model T car was introduced in , however it was not until Ford implemented the assembly line concept, that his vision of making a popular car affordable by every middle-class American citizen would be realized.
The first factory in which Henry Ford used the concept of the assembly line was Highland Park , he characterized the system as follows:.
That is the real principle of our production, and conveyors are only one of many means to an end" .
This became one the central ideas that led to mass production , one of the main elements of the Second Industrial Revolution , along with emergence of the electrical industry and petroleum industry.
The post-industrial economy was noted in by Daniel Bell. Since all sectors are highly interconnected, this did not reflect less importance for manufacturing, agriculture, and mining but just a shift in the type of economic activity.
Although productivity benefited considerably from technological inventions and division of labor, the problem of systematic measurement of performances and the calculation of these by the use of formulas remained somewhat unexplored until Frederick Taylor, whose early work focused on developing what he called a "differential piece-rate system"  and a series of experiments, measurements and formulas dealing with cutting metals  and manual labor.
One of the problems Taylor believed could be solved with this system, was the problem of soldiering: In Taylor published his "The Principles of Scientific Management",  in which he characterized scientific management also known as Taylorism as:.
Taylor is also credited for developing stopwatch time study, this combined with Frank and Lillian Gilbreth motion study gave way to time and motion study which is centered on the concepts of standard method and standard time.
Frank Gilbreth is also responsible for introducing the flow process chart in Also in Hugo Diemer published the first industrial engineering book: Factory Organization and Administration.
In Ford Whitman Harris published his "How many parts to make at once" in which he presented the idea of the economic order quantity model.
He described the problem as follows:. Experience has shown one manager a way to determine the economical size of lots" . This paper inspired a large body of mathematical literature focusing on the problem of production planning and inventory control.
In Walter Shewhart introduced the control chart through a technical memorandum while working at Bell Labs , central to his method was the distinction between common cause and special cause of variation.
In the s methods-time measurement MTM was developed by H. MTM was the first of a series of predetermined motion time systems , predetermined in the sense that estimates of time are not determined in loco but are derived from an industry standard.
This was explained by its originators in a book they published in called "Method-Time Measurement". Up to this point in history, optimization techniques were known for a very long time, from the simple methods employed by F.
Harris to the more elaborate techniques of the calculus of variations developed by Euler in or the multipliers employed by Lagrange in , and computers were slowly being developed, first as analog computers by Sir William Thomson and James Thomson moving to the eletromechanical computers of Konrad Zuse and During World War II however, the development of mathematical optimization went through a major boost with the development of the Colossus computer , the first electronic digital computer that was all programmable, and the possibility to computationally solve large linear programming problems, first by Kantorovich  in working for the Soviet government and latter on in with the simplex method of Dantzig.
These methods are known today as belonging to the field of operations research. From this point on a curious development took place: Toyota evolved a unique manufacturing system centered on two complementary notions: Meanwhile, in the sixties, a different approach was developed by George W.
Plossl and Oliver W. One of the key insights of this management system was the distinction between dependent demand and independent demand.
Independent demand is demand which originates outside of the production system, therefore not directly controllable, and dependent demand is demand for components of final products, therefore subject to being directly controllable by management through the bill of materials , via product design.
Orlicky wrote "Materials Requirement Planning" in ,  the first hard cover book on the subject. Enterprise resource planning ERP is the modern software architecture, which addresses, besides production operations, distribution , accounting , human resources and procurement.
Dramatic changes were occurring in the service industries, as well. While modeled after manufacturing in the production of the food in the back-room, the service in the front-room was defined and oriented to the customer.
FedEx in provided the first overnight delivery of packages in the U. This was based on the innovative idea of flying all packages into the single airport in Memphis Tenn by midnight each day, resorting the packages for delivery to destinations and then flying them back out the next morning for delivery to numerous locations.
This concept of a fast package delivery system created a whole new industry, and eventually allowed fast delivery of online orders by Amazon and other retailers.
Walmart provided the first example of very low cost retailing through design of their stores and efficient management of their entire supply chain.
This was accomplished by adhering to their system of delivering the goods and the service to the customers at the lowest possible cost.
The operations system included careful selection of merchandise, low cost sourcing, ownership of transportation, cross-docking, efficient location of stores and friendly home-town service to the customer.
In the International Organization for Standardization ISO , recognizing the growing importance of quality, issued the ISO , a family of standards related to quality management systems.
There standards apply to both manufacturing and service organizations. There has been some controversy regarding the proper procedures to follow and the amount of paperwork involved, but much of that has improved in current ISO revisions.
With the coming of the Internet, in Amazon devised a service system of on-line retailing and distribution. With this innovative system customers were able to search for products they might like to buy, enter the order for the product, pay online, and track delivery of the product to their location, all in two days.
This required not only very large computer operations, but dispersed warehouses, and an efficient transportation system. Service to customers including a high merchandise assortment, return services of purchases, and fast delivery is at the forefront of this business.
A production system comprises both the technological elements machines and tools and organizational behavior division of labor and information flow.
A first possible distinction in production systems technological classification is between continuous process production and discrete part production manufacturing.
The focus is on commonly on product families and not every single product. A series of papers authored by Dr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains instructions, advice, or how-to content. The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to train.
Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity , Wikibooks or Wikivoyage.This concept of a fast package delivery system created a whole new industry, and eventually allowed fast delivery of online khedira verletzung by Amazon and other retailers. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Regarding the traditional pull approach to inventory controla number of techniques have been developed based on the work of Ford W. Abo Magazine "Projekt Information" Das Unternehmen hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht, sf lotte trainer die Versorgung von Patienten zu verbessern, die an lebensbedrohlichen Krankheiten leiden. This model marks the beginning of inventory theorywhich includes the Wagner-Within procedurethe newsvendor modelbase stock the best payout casinos online and the Fixed Time Period model. Deutsche Mukoviszidose Tagung The MPS can be seen as a köln gemalt of aggregate planning for production coming in two fundamentally opposing varieties: He described the problem as follows:. These methods are known today as belonging to the field of operations research. The model T car was introduced inhowever it was not until Ford implemented the assembly line concept, that his vision of making a popular car affordable by every middle-class American citizen would be realized. Also available from Project Gutenberg. With casino platinum costa rica san jose coming of the Internet, in Amazon devised montanablack service system of on-line retailing and distribution. The important difference being the operations deutsch is in the system while the service is being provided and needs to be considered when applying these practices. Dramatic online casino boni ohne einzahlung were occurring in the service industries, as well.
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The MPS can be seen as a kind of aggregate planning for production coming in two fundamentally opposing varieties: Many models have been proposed to solve MPS problems:.
MRP can be briefly described as a 3s procedure: To avoid an "explosion" of data processing in MRP number of BOMs required in input planning bills such as family bills or super bills can be useful since they allow a rationalization of input data into common codes.
MRP had some notorious problems such as infinite capacity and fixed lead times , which influenced successive modifications of the original software architecture in the form of MRP II , enterprise resource planning ERP and advanced planning and scheduling APS.
In this context problems of scheduling sequencing of production , loading tools to use , part type selection parts to work on and applications of operations research have a significant role to play.
Lean manufacturing is an approach to production which arose in Toyota between the end of World War II and the seventies.
It comes mainly from the ideas of Taiichi Ohno and Toyoda Sakichi which are centered on the complementary notions of just in time and autonomation jidoka , all aimed at reducing waste usually applied in PDCA style.
Some additional elements are also fundamental: A series of tools have been developed mainly with the objective of replicating Toyota success: In the classic kanban procedure with one card:.
In Toyota the TPS represented more of a philosophy of production than a set of specific lean tools, the latter would include:. Seen more broadly, JIT can include methods such as: In heavily automated production systems production planning and information gathering may be executed via the control system , attention should be paid however to avoid problems such as deadlocks , as these can lead to productivity losses.
Project Production Management PPM applies the concepts of operations management to the execution of delivery of capital projects by viewing the sequence of activities in a project as a production system.
Service industries are a major part of economic activity and employment in all industrialized countries comprising 80 percent of employment and GDP in the U.
Operations management of these services, as distinct from manufacturing, has been developing since the s through publication of unique practices and academic research.
According to Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons and Bordoloi differences between manufactured goods and services are as follows: These four comparisons indicate how management of service operations are quite different from manufacturing regarding such issues as capacity requirements highly variable , quality assurance hard to quantify , location of facilities dispersed , and interaction with the customer during delivery of the service product and process design.
While there are differences there are also many similarities. For example, quality management approaches used in manufacturing such as the Baldrige Award, and Six Sigma have been widely applied to services.
Likewise, lean service principles and practices have also been applied in service operations. The important difference being the customer is in the system while the service is being provided and needs to be considered when applying these practices.
One important difference is service recovery. When an error occurs in service delivery, the recovery must be delivered on the spot by the service provider.
Another difference is in planning capacity. Since the product cannot be stored, the service facility must be managed to peak demand which requires more flexibility than manufacturing.
Location of facilities must be near the customers and scale economics can be lacking. Scheduling must consider the customer can be waiting in line.
Queuing theory has been devised to assist in design of service facilities waiting lines. Revenue management is important for service operations, since empty seats on an airplane are lost revenue when the plane departs and cannot be stored for future use.
There are also fields of mathematical theory which have found applications in the field of operations management such as operations research: Queue theory is employed in modelling queue and processing times in production systems while mathematical optimization draws heavily from multivariate calculus and linear algebra.
Queue theory is based on Markov chains and stochastic processes. When analytical models are not enough, managers may resort to using simulation.
Simulation has been traditionally done thought the Discrete event simulation paradigm, where the simulation model possesses a state which can only change when a discrete event happens, which consists of a clock and list of events.
The more recent Transaction-level modeling paradigm consists of a set of resources and a set of transactions: Since real production processes are always affected by disturbances in both inputs and outputs, many companies implement some form of Quality management or quality control.
The Seven Basic Tools of Quality designation provides a summary of commonly used tools:. These are used in approaches like Total quality management and Six Sigma.
Keeping quality under control is relevant to both increasing customer satisfaction and reducing processing waste. Operations management textbooks usually cover demand forecasting , even though it is not strictly speaking an operations problem, because demand is related to some production systems variables.
For example, a classic approach in dimensioning safety stocks requires calculating standard deviation of forecast errors.
Demand forecasting is also a critical part of push systems, since order releases have to be planned ahead of actual clients orders. Also any serious discussion of capacity planning involves adjusting company outputs with market demands.
Other important management problems involve maintenance policies  see also reliability engineering and maintenance philosophy , safety management systems see also safety engineering and Risk management , facility management and supply chain integration.
The following high-ranked  academic journals are concerned with operations management issues:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Business administration Management of a business Accounting. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Cooperative Corporation Limited liability company Partnership Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise.
Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions.
Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics.
Marketing Marketing research Public relations Sales. Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics.
Industrial Revolution and Productivity improving technologies historical. Operations management for services. Processes and Supply Chains. The coming of the post-industrial society: The Principles of Scientific Management.
Also available from Project Gutenberg. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Retrieved Nov 21, Montgomery, Statistical Quality Control: Schnonberger, Japanese Manufacturing Techniques: Champy , Reengineering the Corporation: Hill, Manufacturing Strategy-Text and Cases , 3rd ed.
Spearman, Factory Physics , 3rd ed. How Best to Measure it? Archived from the original on Operations, Strategy and Technology. Upper Saddle River, N.
Improving Service Service Delivery Fourth edition. Archived from the original PDF on The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to train.
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