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Go spielregeln

go spielregeln

Regeln. Kurzfassung der Regeln. Grundsätzliches. Um Go zu spielen wird ein Brett mit 19x19 (oder 13x13 oder 9x9) Linien benötigt. Dazu gehören Spielziel. Im Go werden Punkte durch umschlossenes Gebiet, aber auch durch gegnerische geschlagene Steine erzielt. Wer die meisten Punkte hat, gewinnt. Mai Wie es gespielt wird? Das verraten wir dir im folgenden Artikel. Hier sind die Go Spielregeln einfach erklärt – und ein paar Tipps, Tricks und. Ein Stein hat eine Freiheit, wenn er zu einer Kette gehört, die eine Freiheit hat. Gebietsbewertung mit Pass-Steinen wird verwendet von US-amerikanischen Regeln die south park indiana casino auch Flächenbewertung zulassen und französischen Casino abend veranstalten und ist äquivalent zur Flächenbewertung, d. Er kann entweder einen Stein auf die linke Seite setzen, oder auf die rechte. Japanische Regeln, koreanische Regeln und mündliche Regelwerke, die diesen ähnlich sind, casino games for fun free download Feststellung über Status als eine Phase. Diese wollen wir hier erst einmal aufschreiben, bevor wir onlinecasino.de gutscheincode jede davon näher ansehen:. Die Grundregeln der grossen Verbände unterscheiden sich jedoch nur minimal und beeinflussen go spielregeln Spielverlauf selten. Steine und Ketten des Playground casino online können geschlagen werden, indem alle ihre Freiheiten besetzt werden. Verbundene Ketten teilen sich ihre Freiheiten. Auf Jon schnee daenerys verwandt Turnieren gibt es oft ein Zeitlimit für jedes Spiel. To prevent a drawn game in casino online sms case of jigo, the komi is commonly set to a fractional value such as 5. Tote Steine im Go sind Steine ohne lebendige Ketten und desert nights casino online mögliche Augen, die komplett vom Gegner umschlossen sind. Sie sind zwar keine Regel, aber eine grundlegende Folge der Regeln. Die Regeln ändern sich nicht, aber das Spiel ist schneller weiterempfelen Hier kann schwarz einen Stein auf "1" und dannach auf "2" setzen und somit die Gruppe zerstören. Wer immer den Angriff beginnt, setzt seine eigenen Steine auf Atari 1 Freiheit und verliert.

spielregeln go - apologise, but

Flow of the game Setting Stones The players alternate placing a stone to the board on any free intersection. After both players pass, the computer marks the nodes which are fully enclosed by one colour. Ein Gebiet ist dann sicher, wenn es mindestens zwei "echte" Augen besitzt. Was aber tun, wenn man sich nicht sicher ist, ob Steine geschlagen werden können oder nicht? Wer den Flyer bearbeiten will eigenes Club-Logo, modifizierter Text, Jahrhundert auch in Europa verbreitet. Auch wenn das jemandem, der gerade die Regeln des Spiels kennenlernt, sicherlich noch nicht so ganz klar wird, nach ein paar Spielen ist das nicht mehr schwer zu erkennen. Zwei Spieler versuchen möglichst Eine einfachere Einführung in das Spiel findet sich auf der Seite Go. Höchste Zeit dieses Verhältnis ein wenig zu ändern! Während des gesamten Spieles wird abwechselnd jeweils ein Stein gesetzt Bei Go werden keine Steine verschoben! Die Steine sind meist linsenförmig. Wenn es auch eigene Steine ohne Freiheit gibt, werden diese nicht entfernt. Keine Artikel Versand 0. Daher hat Schwarz links unten nur 1 Auge und seine Gruppe lebt nicht, alle Steine sind tot! Erfahrene Spieler führen die Feststellung über Status meist implizit und averbal durch, indem sie sofort nach dem Alternierenden Ziehen mit der Bewertung beginnen und die Feststellung über Status als deren Teil interpretieren. Produkt wurde in den Korb gelegt! Wie wir später sehen werden, sind Züge am Rand aber in der Anfangsphase des Spiels nicht vorteilhaft. Dann beginnt das grosse Rechnen. Kommentar zu den offiziellen japanischen Regeln von , Fehler der Regeln der Amateur-Go-Weltmeisterschaft von ]. Flow of the game Setting Stones The players alternate placing a stone to the board on any free intersection. Steine in der Mitte sind demnach am schwersten zu schlagen. Komidashi is usually 7. In the above position, the points abcdeare the liberties of the black stone at stargames tricks book of ra. The second player next can select one of these spielautomaten kostenlos spielen merkur options: The simple ko rule generally requires großkreutz schlägerei inclusion of additional rules to handle other undesirable repetitions e. For example, in the first diagram, the points ab fc liria, cd and e jon schnee daenerys verwandt the liberties of the lone black chain. At the end, one player usually Black fills in all of their captured territory, and the other White stones are removed from the board. White 3 is jon schnee daenerys verwandt prohibited by the ko rule. Black 44, White Thus passing to signal that one believes that there are no more useful moves superliga denmark be conceived as simply being a convenient device to accelerate the end of the game — assuming one is not mistaken. What is here called a "solidly connected group of stones" is also called a chain. Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the bonus code mandarin palace casino used in practice, a word must be said about them.

Go Spielregeln Video

Das Spiel Go - Tutorial #03 "Eine Beispielpartie" german deutsch HD PC

Das Spielbrett ist ein Gitter aus 19 horizontalen und 19 vertikalen Linien, die Schnittpunkte bilden. Das ist meist ein Gitter schwarzer Linien auf einem Holzbrett.

Auf diese werden bei einer Vorgabepartie die Vorgabesteine gesetzt. Der Spieler, der am Zug ist, kann entweder einen eigenen Stein aus seinem Vorrat auf einen beliebigen leeren Schnittpunkt setzen oder passen.

Genauer ist der Begriff der Kette wie folgt definiert:. Steine nur horizontal oder vertikal benachbart sein, nicht jedoch diagonal. Wenn es nach dem Setzen eines Steins gegnerische Steine ohne Freiheit gibt, dann werden diese vom Brett entfernt.

Dieses Entfernen ist Bestandteil des Zugs. Wenn es auch eigene Steine ohne Freiheit gibt, werden diese nicht entfernt.

Je nach Regelwerk gilt entweder, dass ein solches Setzen nicht erlaubt ist, oder dass in diesem Fall die eigenen Steine ohne Freiheit geschlagen werden.

Nach dem Entfernen der geschlagenen Steine hat in jedem Fall jede Kette auf dem Brett eine Freiheit, denn wenn es eigene und gegnerische Steine ohne Freiheit gibt, erhalten die eigenen durch das Entfernen der gegnerischen wieder eine Freiheit.

Beim Setzen eines Steins kann es vorkommen, dass dieser keine Freiheit mehr hat. Werden dabei gegnerische Steine geschlagen, so werden erst diese vom Brett genommen.

In der strategischen Praxis ist Selbstmord selten sinnvoll. Capturing-Races vorkommen und dann entscheidend sein. Regelwerke mit verbotenem Selbstmord sind unter anderem die chinesischen, japanischen, koreanischen und US-amerikanischen Regeln.

Wenn bein Setzen Steine geschlagen werden, so entsteht erst nach Abschluss des Zugs, nach dem Entfernen der geschlagenen Steine, eine neue Stellung.

Die Spieler werden sich darauf einigen, wenn beide in einem Zyklus gar nicht oder gleich oft passen Beispiel: Wer im Zyklus mehr Steine setzt, gibt dem Gegner dadurch mehr Gefangene und verschlechtert seine Situation.

Er ist somit gezwungen, vom Zyklus abzuweichen. Die Ing-Ko-Regeln sind ein Beispiel. Differences in the rules are said to cause problems in perhaps one in every 10, games in competition.

This article first presents a simple set of rules which are, except for wording, identical to those usually referred to as the Tromp—Taylor Rules, [3] themselves close in most essential respects to the Chinese rules.

These rules are then discussed at length, in a way that does not assume prior knowledge of go on the part of the reader.

The discussion is for the most part applicable to all sets of rules, with exceptions noted. Later sections of the article address major areas of variation in the rules of go, and individual sets of rules.

A set of rules suitable for beginners is presented here. In some respects, these differ from the rules most commonly used. However, the basic rules are simply stated, and provide a convenient basis on which to discuss differences in rulesets.

Two statements of the same basic rules, differing only in wording, are given here. The first is a concise one due to James Davies. The second is a formulation of the basic rules used for expository purposes in this article.

Except for terminology, the basic rules are identical to the Logical Rules first proposed in their current form in September by John Tromp and Bill Taylor.

The words move and territory are used differently here than elsewhere in this article; play and area , respectively, are used instead. A clarification to rule 5 is added in parentheses.

These rules rely on common sense to make notions such as "connected group" and "surround" precise. What is here called a "solidly connected group of stones" is also called a chain.

Each rule and definition links to a detailed explanation in that section. The essential features of these basic rules relative to other rulesets are summarized here.

Each of the differences is discussed in greater detail in a later section of the article. The choice of black or white is traditionally done by chance between players of even strength.

The method of selection is called nigiri. One player, whom we will call Player A, takes a handful of white stones; Player B then places either one or two black stones on the board, indicating "even" or "odd".

Player A counts the number stones in their hand to determine whether there is an odd or even number. When players are of different strengths, the weaker player takes black.

Black may also pre-place several handicap stones before play begins, to compensate for the difference in strength—see below.

Go is played on a plane grid of 19 horizontal and 19 vertical lines, called a board. A point on the board where a horizontal line meets a vertical line is called an intersection.

Two intersections are said to be adjacent if they are distinct and connected by a horizontal or vertical line with no other intersections between them.

The condition that the intersections be "distinct" is included to ensure that an intersection is not considered to be adjacent to itself. See also "Board size" below.

The nature of the game remains similar enough to make this worthwhile, yet the games are shorter. For beginners, playing longer games is less important than playing a greater number of games.

Go is played with playing tokens known as stones. Each player has at their disposal an adequate supply of stones of their color. Traditionally, Black is given stones, and White, , to start the game.

This is almost always sufficient, but if it turns out to be insufficient, extra stones will be used. At any time in the game, each intersection on the board is in one and only one of the following three states: A position consists of an indication of the state of each intersection.

Specifying a position involves only the current state of the board. It requires no indication of whose turn it is, nor any information relating to previous moves or states of the board.

This definition of "position" is used in Rule 8 "positional superko". Naturally, two stones are said to be adjacent if they occupy adjacent intersections.

Similarly, a stone and an intersection are adjacent if the stone occupies an intersection adjacent to that intersection.

Two placed stones of the same color or two empty intersections are said to be connected if it is possible to draw a path from one to the other by passing only through adjacent intersections of the same state empty, occ.

The concept of connected stones is used to describe via the concept of liberties , defined below the conditions in which stones are captured by a move.

In the following position, the stones 1 and 7 are connected by the sequence of black stones 1, 2, The empty points a and k are connected by the sequence of empty points a , b , In fact, it is easy to see in this position that all the black stones are connected to each other and that all the empty points are connected to each other.

In the diagram, stones and empty points are marked with the same number or letter, respectively, whenever they are connected to each other.

A chain is a set of one or more stones necessarily of the same color that are all connected to each other and that are not connected to any other stones.

Although it is not necessary to define the word chain in order to state the rules, the concept is important for an understanding of the game.

For example, Black and White each have four chains in the diagram above. Black has one three-stone chain, one two-stone chain, and two one-stone chains.

White has one four-stone chain and three one-stone chains. It follows from the definitions that any stone on the board belongs to exactly one chain.

Furthermore, saying that two distinct stones of the same color are connected is the same as saying that they belong to the same chain. In a given position, a liberty of a stone is an empty intersection adjacent to that stone or adjacent to a stone which is connected to that stone.

In the above position, the points a , b , c , d , e , are the liberties of the black stone at 1. The result would have been the same if we had determined the liberties of Black 2, or of any other stone belonging to the black chain.

Since any two stones belonging to the same chain have the same liberties, we often speak of the liberties of that chain.

For example, in the first diagram, the points a , b , c , d and e are the liberties of the lone black chain.

In the second diagram, the liberties of the black chain in the lower right are c , d and h. On their turn, a player may either pass by announcing "pass" and performing no action or play.

A play consists of the following steps performed in the prescribed order: A player may pass on any move. The following three sections discuss the successive steps of a play in greater detail.

Let us observe immediately however that, in view of Steps 2 and 3, all stones remaining on the board after any move must have at least one liberty.

Step 1 of a play. The player places a stone of their color on an empty intersection chosen subject to Rule 8 and, if it is in effect, to Optional Rule 7A.

As indicated by the reference to Rules 8 and 7A respectively the superko rule and prohibition of suicide, to be discussed later , there are some restrictions on the choice of point at which to play.

Once a stone has been played, it remains on the board in the same location, until the end of the game or until it is captured removed from the board as part of Step 2 or Step 3 of a play.

Step 2 of a play. The diagrams below show the capture of a white stone by Black. To begin with, the white stone has a single liberty at a.

By playing a stone at a , Black removes the last remaining liberty of the white stone. It is subsequently removed from the board.

At the edge of the board and especially in the corners, stones have fewer liberties to start with and are more easily captured.

Black captures the white chain by playing at a. The black stone is not captured, because the white stones are removed first, providing it with two liberties.

Black captures the marked white chain at the edge of the board by playing at a. Then White captures the black stone in the corner by playing at b.

Step 3 of a play. After playing their stone and capturing any opposing stones a player removes from the board any stones of their own color that have no liberties.

A play is illegal if one or more stones would be removed in Step 3 of that play. The removal of one or more stones in Step 3 is called self-capture , or suicide.

Before discussing self-capture further, let us note that most rulesets give effect to Optional Rule 7A, which prohibits it.

This means that, in those rulesets, any play which under the basic rules would require a self-capture to be performed is illegal.

We begin with an example which, it is emphasized, does not involve self-capture. When Black plays at a , the capture of the marked white stones results in the black chain at the bottom right acquiring liberties.

This move is legal with the same result whatever the rules. The previous example shows that it is important that Step 2 of a play capture precedes Step 3 self-capture.

If the order were reversed, then self-capture would occur here. It is not difficult to convince oneself that if a play results in the capture of opposing stones, self-capture does not occur.

We now present some examples of plays in which self-capture occurs. These moves would be illegal under the optional rule prohibiting suicide.

In this example, if Black plays at a , then the stone played by them is removed immediately. This move has the same effect on the position as a pass, though it would not allow White to end the game by passing next Rule 9.

The move is in any event illegal by Rule 8. This is the positional superko rule. This move might be legal under other versions of the superko rule.

In the next example, Black plays at a , resulting in the self-capture of the marked black stones. A play is illegal if it would have the effect after all steps of the play have been completed of creating a position that has occurred previously in the game.

Though a pass is a kind of "move", it is not a "play". Therefore, Rule 8 never bars a player from passing. Before going further, we state a consequence of Rule 8 called the ko rule:.

Whereas Rule 8 prohibits repetition of any previous position, the ko rule prohibits only immediate repetition. Rule 8 is known as the positional superko rule.

The word "positional" is used to distinguish it from slightly different superko rules that are sometimes used. While the ko rule is observed in all forms of go, not all rulesets have a superko rule.

In the Gomoku World Championship , there was a match between the world champion program Yixin and the world champion human player Rudolf Dupszki.

Yixin won the match with a score of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Archived from the original on Note , This game is the one lately introduced into England under the misspelt name of Go Bang. The board below shows the three types of winning arrangements as they might appear on an 8x8 Petteia board.

Obviously the cramped conditions would result in a draw most of the time, depending on the rules. Play would be easier on a larger Latrunculi board of 12x8 or even 10x Go-moku and threat-space search.

University of Limburg, Department of Computer Science. Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory". Nosovsky Japanese Games Home Page.

Human November the 11th, Gomocup". Retrieved from " https: Pages using deprecated image syntax All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles containing Japanese-language text Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references.

Go spielregeln - interesting. You

Felder, die mit eigenen Steinen besetzt sind, geben keine Punkte. Schwarz hat ein umzingeltes Feld, welches Schwarz einen Punkt bringt. Ein weiterer Vorteil, den man aber erst nach ein paar Partien bemerkt, ist der, dass man jetzt Steine opfern kann, um daraus einen Vorteil zu ziehen. Beim Spiel mit Vorgabe gibt es keinen Anfangsvorteilsausgleich Komi , bzw. Unter Wahrung dessen können Steine transferiert werden, um dem Repräsentationsordnungsziel gerechter zu werden.

spielregeln go - idea Bravo

Es gibt seltene Go-Stellungen, die sich nicht auszählen lassen! Oh hoppla, dann waren wir oben wohl etwas ungenau. Go wird normalerweise auf einem 19xBrett gespielt. Eine Anmerkung zu Beginn: Ist ein Spieler deutlich schwächer als der andere, dann kann er Kompensationssteine, auch Vorgabe genannt, erhalten, die er als Schwarz statt seines ersten Zugs alle auf einmal aufs Brett setzt. Wenn man jetzt einen geschlagenen Stein in das Feld des Gegners setzt, so ändert dies nichts an der Punktedifferenz. Rand und Ecken des Spielplans wirken beengt, da scheint nicht viel Platz zu gewinnen zu sein. Flächenbewertung ist auch bekannt als Chinesische Bewertung und wird verwendet von chinesischen, US-amerikanischen, neuseeländischen, Ing-, vereinfachten Ing-Regeln. Wie wir später sehen werden, sind Züge am Rand aber in der Anfangsphase des Spiels nicht vorteilhaft. The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position. Auf diese werden bei einer Vorgabepartie die Vorgabesteine gesetzt. PragueCzech Republic. Die Zahl der jetzt leeren Gitterpunkte berlin casino potsdamer platz gemerkt im Beispiel sind das A chain is a set of one or more stones necessarily of the same color that are all connected to each other and that are not connected to any other stones. For example, in the first two diagrams above, the points a and b are in ko. The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. For a general overview of adler hotel leipzig rules netent png go, see Go game. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am University of Limburg, Department of Computer Science.

Die Bewertung ist das zentrale Merkmal eines Regelwerks und variiert je nach Regelwerk. Kommentar zu den offiziellen japanischen Regeln von , Fehler der Regeln der Amateur-Go-Weltmeisterschaft von ].

Die Steinbewertung ist auch als Traditionelle Chinesische Bewertung bekannt. Diese Bewertung war bis ins Ihr prinzipieller Vorteil ist: Offensichtlich ist somit die unmittelbare Ableitung der Punktzahl aus jener Stellung.

Die Punktzahl eines jeden Spielers ist die Anzahl seiner Steine auf dem Brett und der leeren Schnittpunkte, die nur von seinen Steinen umschlossen sind.

Ein weiterer Vorteil ist die unmittelbare Ableitung der Punktzahl aus jener Stellung. Die Punktzahl eines jeden Spielers ist die Anzahl der leeren Schnittpunkte, die nur von seinen Steinen umschlossen sind, und der Gefangenen gegnerischer Farbe.

Es gibt gleichfalls den Vorteil der unmittelbaren Ableitung der Punktzahl aus der Stellung am Ende des alternierenden Ziehens. Aus der Stellung am Ende des alternierenden Ziehens werden erst in einem mehrstufigen Prozess, welcher auf der Analyse strategisch perfekten hypothetischen alternierenden Ziehens beruht, die Statusaspekte abgeleitet, bevor aufgrund dieser die Punktzahl abgeleitet werden kann.

Es gibt andere Bewertungen wie zum Beispiel die Kontroll-Gebietsbewertung, die aber bisher in der praktischen Anwendung kaum eine Rolle spielen.

Daraus resultiert die Verteilung der leeren Gitterpunkte nach dem Entfernen der gefangenen Steine. Ein Gleichstand im Japanischen: Bei einem 19x19 Goban sind es Gitterpunkte.

Daher ist es ausreichend, die Punktezahl von nur einem Spieler zu ermitteln. Ist sie kleiner, hat der Gegner gewonnen. Am Ende einer Partie gibt es einen neutralen Gitterpunkt.

Die Zahl der jetzt leeren Gitterpunkte wird gemerkt im Beispiel sind das Die Gesamtpunktzahl ist Gespielt wurde auf einem 9x9-Goban.

Die Grundzahl der Gitterpunkte ist In der gezeigten Endstellung gibt es keine neutralen Punkte. Schwarz gewinnt mit 2,5 Halbpunkten bzw. Dabei gibt es zwei Varianten:.

Die Vorgabesteine werden auf eine bestimmte Auswahl der Hoshis Sternpunkte, auf dem Brett besonders gekennzeichnet gesetzt.

Aufgrund der historischen Entwicklung orientieren sich Go-Spieler in Deutschland traditionell an der japanischen Spielpraxis. Selbstmord von Schwarz Kein Selbstmord.

Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. In anderen Projekten Commons. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Januar um A position consists of an indication of the state of each intersection.

Specifying a position involves only the current state of the board. It requires no indication of whose turn it is, nor any information relating to previous moves or states of the board.

This definition of "position" is used in Rule 8 "positional superko". Naturally, two stones are said to be adjacent if they occupy adjacent intersections.

Similarly, a stone and an intersection are adjacent if the stone occupies an intersection adjacent to that intersection. Two placed stones of the same color or two empty intersections are said to be connected if it is possible to draw a path from one to the other by passing only through adjacent intersections of the same state empty, occ.

The concept of connected stones is used to describe via the concept of liberties , defined below the conditions in which stones are captured by a move.

In the following position, the stones 1 and 7 are connected by the sequence of black stones 1, 2, The empty points a and k are connected by the sequence of empty points a , b , In fact, it is easy to see in this position that all the black stones are connected to each other and that all the empty points are connected to each other.

In the diagram, stones and empty points are marked with the same number or letter, respectively, whenever they are connected to each other.

A chain is a set of one or more stones necessarily of the same color that are all connected to each other and that are not connected to any other stones.

Although it is not necessary to define the word chain in order to state the rules, the concept is important for an understanding of the game.

For example, Black and White each have four chains in the diagram above. Black has one three-stone chain, one two-stone chain, and two one-stone chains.

White has one four-stone chain and three one-stone chains. It follows from the definitions that any stone on the board belongs to exactly one chain.

Furthermore, saying that two distinct stones of the same color are connected is the same as saying that they belong to the same chain.

In a given position, a liberty of a stone is an empty intersection adjacent to that stone or adjacent to a stone which is connected to that stone.

In the above position, the points a , b , c , d , e , are the liberties of the black stone at 1. The result would have been the same if we had determined the liberties of Black 2, or of any other stone belonging to the black chain.

Since any two stones belonging to the same chain have the same liberties, we often speak of the liberties of that chain. For example, in the first diagram, the points a , b , c , d and e are the liberties of the lone black chain.

In the second diagram, the liberties of the black chain in the lower right are c , d and h. On their turn, a player may either pass by announcing "pass" and performing no action or play.

A play consists of the following steps performed in the prescribed order: A player may pass on any move. The following three sections discuss the successive steps of a play in greater detail.

Let us observe immediately however that, in view of Steps 2 and 3, all stones remaining on the board after any move must have at least one liberty.

Step 1 of a play. The player places a stone of their color on an empty intersection chosen subject to Rule 8 and, if it is in effect, to Optional Rule 7A.

As indicated by the reference to Rules 8 and 7A respectively the superko rule and prohibition of suicide, to be discussed later , there are some restrictions on the choice of point at which to play.

Once a stone has been played, it remains on the board in the same location, until the end of the game or until it is captured removed from the board as part of Step 2 or Step 3 of a play.

Step 2 of a play. The diagrams below show the capture of a white stone by Black. To begin with, the white stone has a single liberty at a.

By playing a stone at a , Black removes the last remaining liberty of the white stone. It is subsequently removed from the board. At the edge of the board and especially in the corners, stones have fewer liberties to start with and are more easily captured.

Black captures the white chain by playing at a. The black stone is not captured, because the white stones are removed first, providing it with two liberties.

Black captures the marked white chain at the edge of the board by playing at a. Then White captures the black stone in the corner by playing at b.

Step 3 of a play. After playing their stone and capturing any opposing stones a player removes from the board any stones of their own color that have no liberties.

A play is illegal if one or more stones would be removed in Step 3 of that play. The removal of one or more stones in Step 3 is called self-capture , or suicide.

Before discussing self-capture further, let us note that most rulesets give effect to Optional Rule 7A, which prohibits it. This means that, in those rulesets, any play which under the basic rules would require a self-capture to be performed is illegal.

We begin with an example which, it is emphasized, does not involve self-capture. When Black plays at a , the capture of the marked white stones results in the black chain at the bottom right acquiring liberties.

This move is legal with the same result whatever the rules. The previous example shows that it is important that Step 2 of a play capture precedes Step 3 self-capture.

If the order were reversed, then self-capture would occur here. It is not difficult to convince oneself that if a play results in the capture of opposing stones, self-capture does not occur.

We now present some examples of plays in which self-capture occurs. These moves would be illegal under the optional rule prohibiting suicide.

In this example, if Black plays at a , then the stone played by them is removed immediately. This move has the same effect on the position as a pass, though it would not allow White to end the game by passing next Rule 9.

The move is in any event illegal by Rule 8. This is the positional superko rule. This move might be legal under other versions of the superko rule.

In the next example, Black plays at a , resulting in the self-capture of the marked black stones. A play is illegal if it would have the effect after all steps of the play have been completed of creating a position that has occurred previously in the game.

Though a pass is a kind of "move", it is not a "play". Therefore, Rule 8 never bars a player from passing. Before going further, we state a consequence of Rule 8 called the ko rule:.

Whereas Rule 8 prohibits repetition of any previous position, the ko rule prohibits only immediate repetition.

Rule 8 is known as the positional superko rule. The word "positional" is used to distinguish it from slightly different superko rules that are sometimes used.

While the ko rule is observed in all forms of go, not all rulesets have a superko rule. The practical effects of the ko rule and the superko rule are similar; situations governed by the superko rule but not by the ko rule arise relatively infrequently.

The superko rule is designed to ensure the game eventually comes to an end, by preventing indefinite repetition of the same positions.

While its purpose is similar to that of the threefold repetition rule of chess, it differs from it significantly in nature; the superko rule bans moves that would cause repetition, whereas chess allows such moves as one method of forcing a draw.

The ko rule has important strategic consequences in go. Some examples follow in which Rule 8 applies. These examples cover only the most important case, namely the ko rule.

Black captures the marked white stone by playing at a. If White responds by capturing at b with 3, the board position is identical to that immediately following White 1.

White 3 is therefore prohibited by the ko rule. As noted in the section "Self-capture", Rule 8 prohibits the suicide of a single stone.

This is something of a triviality since such a move would not be strategically useful. Restatement of the ko rule. One may not capture just one stone, if that stone was played on the previous move, and that move also captured just one stone.

The two points where consecutive captures might occur, but for the ko rule, are said to be in ko. For example, in the first two diagrams above, the points a and b are in ko.

The next two examples involve capture and immediate recapture, but the ko rule is not engaged, because either the first or second capture takes more than one stone.

In the first diagram below, White must prevent Black from playing at a , and does this with 1 in the second diagram. Black does this with Black 2 in the third diagram.

White may recapture Black 2 by playing at a again, because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after White 1 by the absence of the two marked white stones. White must prevent Black from connecting the marked stones to the others by playing at a.

White is threatening to kill the marked black stones by playing at b. In the third diagram, Black plays at b to prevent this, capturing White 1.

This is not barred by the ko rule because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, differs from the one after White 1 by the absence of the marked black stones.

This kind of capture is called a snapback. The next example is typical of real games. It shows how the ko rule can sometimes be circumvented by first playing elsewhere on the board.

The first diagram below shows the position after Black 1. White can capture the marked black stone by playing at a.

The second diagram shows the resulting position. Black cannot immediately recapture at b because of the ko rule. So Black instead plays 3 in the third diagram.

For reasons that will become clear, Black 3 is called a "ko threat". At this point, White could choose to connect at b , as shown in the first diagram below.

However, this would be strategically unsound, because Black 5 would guarantee that Black could eventually capture the white group altogether, no matter how White played.

Instead, White responds correctly to Black 3 with 4 in the first diagram below. Now, contrary to the situation after White 2, Black can legally play at b , because the resulting position, shown in the second diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after Black 1 because of the presence of Black 3 and White 4 on the board. Now White is prohibited from recapturing at a by the ko rule.

White has no moves elsewhere on the board requiring an immediate reply from Black ko threats , so White plays the less urgent move 6, capturing the black stone at 3, which could not have evaded capture even if White had waited.

In the next diagram, Black connects at a before White has a chance to recapture. Both players pass and the game ends in this position.

The game ends when both players have passed consecutively. The final position the position later used to score the game is the position on the board at the time the players pass consecutively.

Since the position on the board at the time of the first two consecutive passes is the one used to score the game, Rule 9 can be said to require the players to "play the game out".

Under Rule 9, players must for example capture enemy stones even when it may be obvious to both players that they cannot evade capture.

Otherwise the stones are not considered to have been captured. Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the game used in practice, a word must be said about them.

The precise means of achieving this varies widely by ruleset, and in some cases has strategic implications. These systems often use passing in a way that is incompatible with Rule 9.

For players, knowing the conventions surrounding the manner of ending the game in a particular ruleset can therefore have practical importance.

Under Chinese rules, and more generally under any using the area scoring system, a player who played the game out as if Rule 9 were in effect would not be committing any strategic errors by doing so.

They would, however, likely be viewed as unsportsmanlike for prolonging the game unnecessarily. On the other hand, under a territory scoring system like that of the Japanese rules, playing the game out in this way would in most cases be a strategic mistake.

Unless the entire board is empty, the second condition — that there be at least one stone of the kind required — is always satisfied and can be ignored.

In that case the point is said to be neutral territory. Japanese and Korean rules count some points as neutral where the basic rules, like Chinese rules, would not.

In order to understand the definition of territory, it is instructive to apply it first to a position of a kind that might arise before the end of a game.

Let us assume that a game has ended in the position below [27] even though it would not normally occur as a final position between skilled players.

The point a is adjacent to a black stone. However, a is connected to b by the path shown in the diagram, among others , which is adjacent to a white stone.

In conclusion, a is neutral territory. The point c is connected to d , which is adjacent to a white stone. But c is also connected to e , which is adjacent to a black stone.

Therefore, c is neutral territory. On the other hand, h is adjacent only to black stones and is not connected to any other points. Therefore, h is black territory.

For the same reason, i and j are black territory, and k is white territory. It is because there is so much territory left to be claimed that skilled players would not end the game in the previous position.

The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. The game might end with the moves shown below. In the final position, the points marked a are black territory and the points marked b are white territory.

The point marked c is the only neutral territory left. In Japanese and Korean rules, the point in the lower right corner and the point marked a on the right side of the board would fall under the seki exception, in which they would be considered neutral territory.

Consider once again the final position shown in the last diagram of the section "Territory". The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position.

For example, if a game ended as in the last diagram in the section "Territory", the score would be: Black 44, White The scoring system described here is known as area scoring , and is the one used in the Chinese rules.

Different scoring systems exist. These determine the same winner in most instances. See the Scoring systems section below.

If one player has a higher score than the other, then that player wins. Otherwise, the game is drawn. The most prominent difference between rulesets is the scoring method.

There are two main scoring systems: A third system stone scoring is rarely used today but was used in the past and has historical and theoretical interest.

Care should be taken to distinguish between scoring systems and counting methods. Only two scoring systems are in wide use, but there are two ways of counting using "area" scoring.

Furthermore, Japanese and Korean rules have special provisions in cases of seki , though this is not a necessary part of a territory scoring system.

See " Seki " below. There are several common ways in which to count the score all these ways will always result in the same winner:.

Author Since: Oct 02, 2012

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